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Volumetric Analysis : Class 12 Physical Chemistry Notes

Volumetric Analysis Class 12 Notes | Unit 1 Chemistry | Pdf Solution | Important Questions | Numericals | Chemistry Class 12 Notes Nepal | NEB Notes |

Unit 1: Volumetric Analysis

Class 12 Chemistry Volumetric Analysis Notes

Volumetric analysis Course content
1.1 Define and explain the terms volumetric and gravimetric analysis.
1.2 Express the concentration of solutions in terms of percentage, g/l, molarity, molality, normality, ppm, ppb
1.3 Define and calculate the equivalent weight of (elements, acids, bases, salts, oxidizing and reducing agents).
1.4 Express the concentration of the solution in terms of normality.
1.5 Explain and apply the concept of the law of equivalence in chemical calculation.
1.6 Define and explain primary and secondary standard substances.
1.7 Explain different types of titration and their applications.

volumetric analysis class 12 NEB notes pdf, nepal
Unit 1: Volumetric Analysis 

Volumetric analysis Introduction

Volumetric analysis is defined as the process of the determination of the concentration of an unknown solution by finding its volume which will exactly react with a definite volume of another solution of known concentration.

Gravimetric analysis is defined as the process of quantitative determination of an analyte(the ion being analyzed) based on the mass of a solid.

At first solution of given sample is prepared, treated with suitable reagent to convert into insoluble form which is made pure by washing, dried and weighed. Then the weight of the required substance is calculated with the help of theoretical concept.

Eg. How much SO4-- ion is present in a given sample of Na2SO4?

A known amount of the given sample is dissolved in water and the excess amount of BaCl2 is added to the solution so that all SO4-- is converted into insoluble BaSO4. The precipitate is washed and made pure, it is then dried and weighed. Let the weight of BaSO4 formed is Y gm.

We know, 233 gm. of BaSO4 contains 96 gm. of SO4-- ions.
So, Y gm. of BaSO4 contains (96/233) x Y gm. of SO4--ions.

Pre-requirements in volumetric analysis

Equivalent weight (equivalent mass)

It is defined as “the no. of parts by wt. of the substance that combines with or displaces 1.008 parts by wt. of hydrogen, 8 parts by wt. of oxygen or 35.5 parts by wt. of chlorine.”

Equivalent weight is a unit less.

Equivalent weight expressed in gm is called gm. equivalent.

No. of gm. eqvt. = given wt./eq.wt.

Volumetric Analysis Complete Notes - NEB Class 12 Chemistry

Volumetric analysis
Gravimetric analysis

Volumetric analysis

Eg. How much SO4 -- ion is present in a given sample of Na2SO4?

Eg. How much SO4 -- ion is present in given sample of Na2SO4 ?

Pre-requirements in volumetric analysis

          Equivalent weight (equivalent mass)

Pre-requirements in volumetric analysis           Equivalent weight (equivalent mass)
Relation between equivalent weight, atomic weight and valency
Relation between equivalent weight, atomic weight and  valency
a) Equivalent wt. of element = Atomic weight / Valency
a) Equivalent wt. of element = Atomic weight / Valency
b) Equivalent wt. of radical (ion) = wt. of radical / no. of charge on it
b) Equivalent wt. of radical (ion) = wt. of radical / no. of charge on it

d) Equivalent wt. of acid = molecular weight / basicity

d) Equivalent wt. of acid = molecular weight / basicity

d) Equivalent wt. of base = molecular weight / acidity

d) Equivalent wt. of base = molecular weight / acidity

e) Equivalent wt. of salt = molecular weight / total positive or negative charge per molecule

e) Equivalent wt. of salt = molecular weight / total positive or negative charge per molecule

f) Equivalent wt. of oxidizing & reducing agent = molecular weight / total change in o.n per molecule

f) Equivalent wt. of oxidizing & reducing agent = molecular weight / total change in o.n per molecule

Equivalent wt. of KMnO4 in a different medium

iii) Alkaline medium
i) Acidic medium
ii) Neutral medium

Equivalent wt. of KMnO4 in different medium Acidic medium and Neutral medium

Volumetric Notes pdf - ii) Alkaline medium

Concentration of solution

b) percent (%)
a) Gram per litre (gL-1 or g dm-3)

Concentration of solution and a) Gram per litre (gL-1 or g dm-3)
b) percentage(%) - Volumetric Analysis

Relation between gL-1 & percentage

Relation between gL-1 & percentage

Normal, Semi-normal, Deci-normal and Centi-normal solution

Relation between normality & gL-1

Relation between normality & gL-1

Relation between molarity and g L-1
Relation between Normality & Molarity


Relation between molarity and g L-1 and Relation between Normality & Molarity

Molality and Formality - Volumetric Analysis Class 12

g) Mole fraction: It is the ratio of the no. of moles of solute or solvent and total moles in solution.

Important relations between concentration units 

Volumetric NEB Notes Class 12 Chemistry: Important relations between concentration units

Primary standard substance 

Primary standard substance

Standard solution A solution of exactly known concentration is called a standard solution. The standard solution is of two types

  1. Primary standard solution:
  2. Secondary standard solution: 
Primary standard solution: Secondary standard solution:

Normality factor:

Normality factor Volumetric Analysis
Preparation of 250 ml. standard decinormal solution of Na2CO3 
Preparation of 250 ml. standard decinormal solution of Na2CO3
Preparation of 250 ml standard decinormal solution of oxalic acid
Preparation of 250 ml standard decinormal solution of oxalic acid

Principles of volumetric analysis

Principles of volumetric analysis

3. When acid and alkali neutralize each other exactly then the following relation must  hold good. Volumetric Analysis Notes

Derivation of normality equation 

Derivation of normality equation Volumetric Analysis NEB

N1V1 = N2V2 is true always but M1V1 = M2V2 is not true always. Why?

N1V1 = N2V2 is true always but M1V1 = M2V2 is not true always. Why?

Important apparatus used in the titration.

Volumetric Analysis - Important Apparatus used in Volumetric titration

Some important terms in volumetric analysis :

  • Titration
  • Unknown Solution
  • Acidimetry
  • Alkalimetry
  • Titrant
  • Titrand
  • Indicator
  • End Point
  • Equivalence Point
  • Titration error

Some Important Terms in Volumetric Analysis

Some Important Terms in Volumetric Analysis

Different types of titration

different types of titration - volumetric analysis class 12 chemistry

Selection of indicator

Selection of indicator Volumetric Analysis Notes

Acid Base Titration Range Volumetric analysis

Acid Base Titration Graph - Volumetric Analysis
a) Titration of strong acid and strong base:
b) Titration of strong acid and weak base: 
acid base titration - volumetric analysis class 12 notes pdf
c) Titration of a weak acid and strong base: 
d) Titration of weak acid and weak base: 
acid base titration - volumetric analysis class 12 notes pdf

Numerical:  

Volumetric Analysis Notes Pdf

This is a Pdf with volumetric analysis notes.

Queries Solved in this Volumetric Analysis Notes:

  1. Volumetric Analysis Class 12 Notes
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  3. Volumetric Analysis Class 12 Important Questions
  4. Volumetric Analysis Numericals
  5. Class 12 Chemistry
  6. Volumetric analysis Class 12 Exercise Solutions

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